All About Rice

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indica and japonica ricePhoto by atem_y_zeit

The origin of rice

Rice originating in China, namely from Delta of strong river Yangtze.

General on rice

Natural rice contains balancing substances, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals and vitamins. To get white rice grains, rice grains are polished, but at the same time, the liner which is rich in protein is gone.

To get rice grain with a lovely white color, and yet all the nutrients from the liner are preserved in the very grain of rice, it is invented the process called PARBOILING, ie. Parboiling rice.

Parboiling is a process in which still not polished rice grains are subjected to high pressure, which all nutrients are transported from the surface to the interior of grains and only after that the rice is polished, abrasive to get white.

Today there are about 8,000 varieties of rice, which we divide into two main categories.

Commerce and most important group of Oryza sativa and one at yields not so abundant variety, Oryza Glaber.

Rice varieties of Oryza sativa we divide again into two groups:

  • Indica group, which includes long grain rice.
  • Japonica group, which includes medium grain rice and round grain rice.

 Rice of Indica group

Indica rice varieties with a very long, elongated grain.

Basmati rice: originates from India, it is very aromatic and when preparing smells good. It is named after the Indian word for smell, Basmati.

Fragrant Rice: This rice cooking smells very aromatic . The grains of fragrant rice is not so long like basmati rice, and cooked grain is a little stickier. It is produced in China and Thailand.


Patna rice: originates from India, and it is the world’s most common long grain rice.

Rice of Japonica group

Rice of Japonica group is characterized by medium-long or round grain.

Sticky rice: medium grain rice with a high percentage of starch, and therefore while cooking grains  stick out, which in turn gives the advantage of eating with chopsticks.

Milky rice: is originally from Italy and is used mostly in sweet dishes.

Mochi rice: the round grain, originates from Japan and is used for stuffing, ie. As stuffing.

Nishiki rice: rice with round grain, originates from Japan and Korea and is used as a side dish.

Red Rice: Rice is secondary, not polished grains, originated from India. In France (Carmarque) planted this rice as BIO rice.

Black rice: it is as red rice, unpolished grains, and has a black shell (jacket).

Rice for risotto

Arborio is simple, not demanding variety of rice, suitable for risotto.

Carnaroli rice variety of white beans, delicious and not too hard.

Vialone nano has features as Carnaroli but very fine (small) grain.

Trademarks of rice

There is a few words on the labels of rice that can be found on the packaging in stores:

BIO rice is rice grown under strictly controlled conditions.

Brown rice is another name for natural (untreated rice grains).

Natural rice is peeled off and freed from the shells of rice, which has all the important nutrients.

Quick cooking Rice: rice which has been boiled and then dried, so it takes less time to prepare.

Energy value per 100 grams of rice:

Protein (g) 6.61

Carbohydrates (g) 79.34

Dietary fiber (g) 1.40

Cholesterol (mg) 0.00

Total Fat 0.3 g    0%

Saturated fat 0.1 g           0%

Polyunsaturated fat 0.1 g

Monounsaturated fat 0.1 g

Vitamin A 0%, Vitamin C 0%, Calcium 1%, Iron 1%, Vitamin D 0%, Vitamin B-6 5%, Vitamin B-12 0%, Magnesium 3%.


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